Forensic Accounting

An Overview of Forensic Accounting

In a 2012 report, the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners estimated that approximately 5% of annual revenue around the world is lost to fraud. Globally, this translates to $3.5 trillion in potential losses. Fraud is notoriously difficult to detect and counteract; the typical perpetrator is intelligent, well educated and in a position that allows them to easily cover their tracks. It is the job of a forensic accountant to uncover evidence of illicit activity and help bring the fraudster to justice.

Also known as forensic auditors or investigative auditors, these professionals are generally employed in the occurrence of a dispute or impending litigation. Potential cases range from insurance claims, personal injury suits and royalty audits to insolvency, divorce or breach of contract issues. A modern investigative auditor must be methodical, detail-oriented and analytical, while possessing advanced computing skills and the ability to translate their findings into easily understood language. The 2012 Report to the Nations on Occupational Fraud & Abuse found that the median amount of damage caused by organization owners or executives was $573,000 and that 20% of cases dealt with losses in excess of $1 million. The majority of these incidents go undiscovered until the authorities are tipped off, so a forensic accountant must always be suspicious and scrutinizing in their efforts.

While forensic accountants themselves rarely make headlines, the cases they work do, as was made evident with the fall of Enron in the early 2000s. The job can be exciting, but it requires a level of attention that few people can master. To further explore the roles and responsibilities of this unique position, we have detailed the different offices held by those in the forensic accounting field.

Forensic Accounting Careers

Forensic accountants are fortunate in having a diverse range of entry-level options available to them. Unlike other career paths in the accounting world, forensic auditors tend to perform the same functions throughout their career and move up from analyst, to manager, to supervisor/senior consultant over the course of their employment. Compensation generally begins around $50,000 and increases with professional certification, education and years of experience, with senior level auditors earning a salary upwards of $150,000.

There are many certification options open to forensic accountants, but the two most widely recognized are the Association of Certified Fraud Examiner (ACFE) Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountant (AICPA) Certified in Financial Forensics Credential (CFF). Many fraud examiner positions will require one of these credentials, and even if they do not, certified forensic accountants earn on average 25% more than their uncertified colleagues.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicts 13% job growth for accountants and auditors by 2022. The growth of all forensic accounting jobs should correspond with this rate, if not exceed it due increasing financial regulations, with some estimates predicting a 20% growth in demand for investigative auditors. Below, we have broken down some of the most common career paths and included potential salary data sourced from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. It is not uncommon to jump between these types of employment as someone progresses in their career and hones in on an area of interest.

Specializations

Governmental Departments (FBI, CIA, IRS)

  • Responsibilities
  • Education and Experience Requirements
  • Salary Expectations

Responsibilities

  • Investigate financial history of terrorists, spies and criminals
  • Testify as expert witnesses
  • Build financial profiles of suspicious individuals
  • Gather evidence and assist in the execution of search warrants
  • Take part in interrogations
  • Track illicit funding sources
  • Compile financial investigative reports
  • Meet with prosecutors to discuss strategy

Education and Experience Requirements

Entry Level (GS-11/GS-12)

  • Undergraduate degree in accounting or related field with 24 semester hours in accounting courses
  • Minimum 1 year specialized experience
  • Ability to obtain top-secret security clearance
  • Recommended CPA Certification and Fraud Examiner Certification

Mid-Level (GS-13)

  • One year experience at GS-12 level
  • Broad knowledge of criminal statutes and legal proceedings
  • Production of in-depth reports suitable for use in court
  • Expert-level knowledge of in a variety of digital accounting software

Salary Expectations

  • $65,000 to $115,000

Accounting Firms

  • Responsibilities
  • Education and Experience Requirements
  • Salary Expectations

Responsibilities

  • Uncover fraud and collect evidence
  • Translate technical jargon into everyday language
  • Testify in court
  • Perform computer forensics
  • Conduct fact-finding interviews
  • Quantify financial losses due to misconduct

Education and Experience Requirements

Entry Level

  • BS/BA in accounting or related field
  • 1 year forensic accounting experience or 3 years of audit experience
  • CFE and CPA preferred
  • Excellent communication skills

Mid-Level

  • 3-5 years investigative auditing experience
  • Master’s degree preferred
  • CFE or CFF certification

Salary Expectations

  • $55,000 – $75,000

Corporate Security & Risk Management

  • Responsibilities
  • Education and Experience Requirements
  • Salary Expectations

Responsibilities

  • Protect financial assets from internal and external threats, including political issues and economic circumstances
  • Analyze changes in law, taxes, exchange rates and cultural attitudes and their influence on operations and profits
  • Ensure organizational compliance with laws and procedures
  • Audit financial statements for risk

Education and Experience Requirements

Entry Level

  • Bachelor’s degree in accounting or related subjected
  • Ability to review processes, operations and goals
  • Knowledge of industry specific compliance regulations
  • CFF, CFE or CPA certification preferred

Mid-Level

  • Bachelor’s degree
  • 3-5 years related experience
  • Detailed knowledge of industry best practices
  • CFF or CFE certification required

Senior Level

  • Bachelor’s degree
  • 5-8 years of experience
  • Ability to supervise and manage a team of auditors

Salary Expectations

  • $102,250 – $184,875

Law Firms

  • Responsibilities
  • Education and Experience Requirements
  • Salary Expectations

Responsibilities

  • Act as an in-house consultant for financial issues
  • Translate complex financial findings into simplified language
  • Assist in finding financial experts for testimonies
  • Conduct investigative audits

Education and Experience Requirements

  • Fraud Examiner certification (CFE)
  • 5-10 years experience in investigative audits
  • Preferred experience working in litigations

Salary Expectations

  • $83,750 – $150,000

Financial Consulting Firms

  • Responsibilities
  • Education and Experience Requirements
  • Salary Expectations

Responsibilities

  • Investigate fraud, regulatory scrutiny and corruption
  • Analyze and reconstruct financial records and digital information
  • Conduct interviews
  • Assess vulnerability to fraud
  • Embezzlement allegations

Education and Experience Requirements

Entry Level

  • 0-2 years experience
  • CPA candidate, CPA licensure preferred
  • Bachelor’s degree in accounting or related field
  • Advanced skills in Microsoft Excel

Mid-Level

  • 3-5 years experience
  • Master’s degree preferred
  • CFF or CFE certification

Salary Expectations

  • $63,000- $125,000